All posts by EZ Malaysia

BABA NYONYA – CHINESE, MALAY OR MIXED?

Peranakan Chinese and Baba-Nyonya are terms used for the descendants of late 15th and 16th-century Chinese immigrants to the Malay-Indonesian archipelago of Nusantara during the Colonial era.

Members of this community in Malaysia identify themselves as ‘Nyonya-Baba’ or ‘Baba-Nyonya’. Nyonya is the term for the females and Baba for males. It applies especially to the ethnic Chinese populations of the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java and other locations, who adopted partially or in full Malay-Indonesian customs to become partially assimilated into the local communities.

While the term Peranakan is most commonly used among the ethnic Chinese for those of Chinese descent also known as Straits Chinese (土生華人; named after the Straits Settlements), it may also be applied to the Baba-Yaya community in Phuket and other provinces of southern Thailand.

Is there a difference between the Chinese and the Baba Nyonya of the Straits Settlement during the good old days? Definitely it is undeniable that the lifestyles have some distinctive variations. The obvious were the food, customs, kinship, attire and language. The Nyonya believed that to keep a man’s heart at home was to have excellent culinary skills – to cook good, delicious food making sure that the husband is full and happy. Hence this is one of the reasons why Nyonya food until today is still so popular. Due to the fact that the Baba Nyonya have resided along the Straits Settlement for a long time, the way they dressed and conversed were highly influenced by the Malay culture. However, the common belief is that somewhere along the ancestry line is that the great grandmothers or the great, great grandmothers were of Malay origin but was found to be unsubstantiated as research by interviewing offsprings of Baba Nyonya families did not show any Malay blood line. Even by arguing the fact that some of the Chinese men who stayed on with Princess Hang Li Po during the late 15th century and marrying local women, thus creating the Baba Nyonya’s connection is over stretching history especially when only after four centuries were the Baba Nyonya and its historical lifestyles documented. The common misinterpretation until today that the Chinese in Malaysia are called ‘Malay People’ or ‘马来人‘ by Chinese living in China and Hong Kong may be the answer that the Chinese men who migrated from China then married a ‘Malay Girl’ from Malaya which in fact is referring to a local Chinese girl.

Baba Nyonya Wedding Photo, 1920 
images courtesy of pinterest.com/hi_hi_mun

Further to comparing the similarities and differences between the Chinese and Baba Nyonya, it is rather peculiar that scholars have yet to find any Baba Nyonya association that was formed during the late 19th century. Unlike the Chinese, where many associations were established for those who came from the same regions in China, spoke the same dialects, have the same surnames, or worked in the same trades, etc. it is also found that some prominent Babas were members and contributed to these Chinese associations. The reason why the Baba Nyonya did not have their own association that time inclined some to opine that they actually considered themselves part of the Chinese community but living differently from the traditional Chinese culture.

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Halal Tourism… A Growing Market in the Global Tourism Industry

by Aida Lim Abdullah,
Managing Director/Founder, Corporate Streets Sdn. Bhd.

The tourism industry is recognised as one of the major sources of economic growth for Malaysia and most of the world; and in this regard, Islamic or Muslim-friendly tourism is seen as an emerging niche market globally. This is due to many Muslim majority countries or markets are now seen as fast-emerging economies with a growing middle class with the thirst for travel. 

The term “Islamic tourism” started to emerge in 2000 during the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) meeting, whereby the concept of increasing tourism within Islamic countries will help to generate income and enhance the development of the said countries.  

According to a report from Dinar Standard and Crescent Rating (2012), the Muslim tourists’ expenditure growth rate is expected to be at 4.79% per year on average from the year 2012 until 2020. This statistic is higher than the global expected average growth rate of 3.8% during the same period. 

Based on an OIC report, on the Muslim Travellers’ demand side, about 75% are for leisure, about 10% for business, 10% for religious activities and maybe another 5% for medical tourism.  In Islam, travelling or any actions should be based on necessity and/or other benefits. These make Islamic tourism unique by upholding the Islamic value during the travel activities without abandoning the needs to enjoy and savour the pleasures of travel to foreign places.

What are the basic requirements?

On the supply side, generally we note that there have been no consistent guidelines to cater for the 6 main faith-related needs, which are; (i) Halal food, (ii) Salaah (prayers) facilities, (iii) convenient water usage with clean, friendly toilets, (iv) Ramadan services and facilities, (v) facilities ensuring no Non-Halal Activities and (vi) recreational facilities with privacy provided. 

The emergence of Islamic tourism concept in the global tourism business requires the industry to have good understanding on the practices of Sharia compliance as well as catering to cultural needs to Muslim travellers. This is a prerequisite for high value experiences for the Muslim tourists. Shariah compliance is recommended to be expanded to related tourism businesses and facilities, such as places of attractions, airports, visitor information centres and related events. The service and product providers in the tourism ecosystem requires different skill sets and knowledge to assemble related tourism components to fulfil the Muslim tourists’ requirements in order to meet the needs of the Muslim tourist. 

More effort and support are needed to understand and market the Islamic Tourism for the Muslim Tourist, especially the essential knowledge and skill sets which will help to promote tourists’ satisfaction and encourage good word-of-mouth sharing and repeat visits. 

What Is Malaysia’s Ranking in Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI)? 

Malaysia is one of the main destinations for Muslim visitors from around the world. It has been recognised as the No. 1 ranked destination on the GMTI (2015). In 2013, Malaysia was also in the top 10 of the world’s ranking in overall visitor arrivals. Muslim visitor arrivals constitute around 25% of the total arrivals. A key and unique strength of our Malaysian success in Muslim Friendly Tourism (MFT) is the commitment of the Malaysian Tourism Ministry and the industry support for Muslim-friendly tourism. 

In early 2009, Malaysia identified that the Muslim market as a priority growth market. This has led to the creation of the Islamic Tourism Centre (ITC). Malaysia’s success story is that there is a government-led commitment to activate the whole industry to make MFT a priority market. Hence, Malaysia is fast becoming the best destination for Muslim visitors in the world with supporting facilities and services aligning to capture this segment.

Amongst the states within Malaysia, Penang has been ranked the third best island in the world and the first in Asia in terms of favourite place to retire in (2021). In a list published by Travel Awaits, the Pearl of the Orient is noted for its multi-culturalism, great culinary scene and connectivity to other countries in the region. As such, leveraging on Malaysia’s commitment in Muslim Tourism and Penang’s natural strength as a well-known tourist’s destination, it has real potential to become a star Muslim Tourism destination. 

As such, there is a need for continuous and concerted good effort to promote the country’s tourism industry and encourage the value chain in the tourism sector to capture a bigger market share, be it inbound or outbound travelling. In the wake of the new normal where things need to be operated under new SOPs, Malaysians in general are hopeful that the MFT activities will be revived and strengthened further!

Have Homtruck Will Travel

Chinese automaker, Geely Holding Group’s commercial vehicle brand, Farizon Auto, has revolutionised electric-vehicle trucking when it launched its new electric semi-truck, The Homtruck, recently.

As its namesake suggests, it is literally a home on wheels. Knowing that drivers spend a great amount of time on the road and in their vehicles, the concept of the Homtruck is simply creating a driving and living space to make long-haul journeys more comfortable, efficient and safe.

It comes installed with a single bed, bathroom (toilet, sink, shower stall), kitchen, washing machine and a kettle and refrigerator thrown in for good measure. The ergonomic seat design and HD cameras ensure drivers are well-rested and well-focused with soft-touch fabrics, sustainable plastics and bamboo grain materials extending into the sleek driver’s area. 

This next generation smart new energy semi-truck offers L4 autonomous drive functions, Over the Air (OTA) software updates and different powertrain options including range extender, methanol hybrid and pure electric with battery swapping capabilities. “The Homtruck represents a significant move towards a net zero-carbon freight transportation system and opens the door to a new era for the logistics industry,” says Eric Li, Chairperson of Geely Holding Group.

Slated for production and deliveries by 2024, The Homtruck will be marketed globally in addition to its home ground, China.

All images courtesy of Geely/Farizon Auto

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a type of chronic debilitating inflammatory arthritis that usually affects small joints of hands and feet. If not treated adequately, RA may cause severe pain and joint damage leading to permanent joint deformity.

How common is RA
Worldwide, the prevalence of RA is estimated to be 0.24% of the population (Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study). In US and European countries, RA has a higher prevalence (0.5%- 1.0% of the population). In South-east Asia, the prevalence of RA was reported to be 0.40% (J Glob Health 2015). RA is found twice as common in women compared with men and more commonly found between 30-50 years old.

What causes RA
RA is an autoimmune disease. To date, the exact cause of RA is not able to be identified. Researchers believe the occurrence of RA is multifactorial. A positive family history, genetic factor, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, age and female sex have been reported to increase the risk of RA.

Presentations and symptoms of RA
Commonly, RA patient will experience stiffness of hands/ feet or affected joints for more than an hour during early mornings. Joint pain and swelling are common. Joints involvement are usually symmetrical on both sides and joint distributions are polyarticular in nature. Apart from joint symptoms, patient may suffer from dry eye, dry mouth, lethargy, weight loss, nodules on skin, lung fibrosis or skin ulcer.

Diagnosis and investigations
Diagnosis of RA is made based on patient’s history, physical examination, blood and imaging tests. Physical examination may reveal boggy joint swelling and joint tenderness on palpation. Patient may have deformities such as radial/ ulnar deviation of the wrist, wrist subluxation, ‘boutonniere deformity’ (hyperextension of the distal inter-phalangeal joint and flexion of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint), or ‘swan-neck’ deformity (hyperextension of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint and flexion of the distal inter-phalangeal joint).

Blood test for specific autoantibodies associated with RA are rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA). A positive RF or ACPA may indicate a more severe/ aggressive disease. Inflammatory markers such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or c-reactive protein (CRP) may be elevated in active disease.

Imaging such as x-ray and ultrasonography of the affected joints may help to detect joint inflammation or erosion on the bones. Musculoskeletal ultrasound is widely used in rheumatology outpatient clinic as a diagnostic tool because ultrasound is more sensitive to detect early arthritis. Ultrasound is a non expensive, non-invasive safe procedure that does not use radiation when compared to other imaging modalities.

X-ray of the hands showed erosion at the carpal bones.
Sonography of the left second metacarpo-phalangeal joint showed synovial hypertrophy and increase in power doppler signal that indicate active synovitis.

Differential diagnoses of RA
Other than RA, the differential diagnoses of chronic inflammatory polyarthritis are: –
– Gouty arthritis- polyarticular
– Psoriatic arthropathy
– Generalized erosive osteoarthritis
– Arthritis related to connective tissue disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Treatment
Treatment of RA should be initiated as soon as the diagnosis of RA to preserve joint function and prevent joint deformity. The mainstay treatment of RA is disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Example of commonly used conventional DMARDs are methotrexate, leflunomide, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine. Biologic therapy or small molecule targeted therapy are also an option to treat severe RA whom have failed conventional DMARDs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids may be used as an add-on therapy to reduce joint inflammation.

Non-pharmacological treatment is also important as part of RA treatment. Physiotherapy or occupational therapy may help in maintaining joint activity, strength and joint protection.

Complication of RA
Untreated RA may cause severe disabling joint deformity. Apart from joint complication, RA may cause premature cardiovascular disease, lung fibrosis, osteopenia or osteoporosis, dry eyes and mouth, increased risk of cancer such as lymphoma.

What should I do if suspected to have RA
If you have symptoms of arthritis, please consult your doctor. If investigations and further management are required, referral to Rheumatologist is warranted.

Dr Lim Chong Hong

Consultant Rheumatologist & Physician

MD (UPM), MRCP (UK), FRCP (Edin.), Fellowship in Rheumatology (Mal & Taiwan), CMIA (NIOSH)

Dr Lim Chong Hong is a Consultant Rheumatologist & Physician in Loh Guan Lye Specialists Centre, Penang. He has vast experience in diagnosing and treating various rheumatic diseases/connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, degenerative joint diseases and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Sunway Education Group CEO Professor Elizabeth Lee Wins UN Women Leadership Award

Sunway Education Group CEO, Professor Elizabeth Lee is no stranger in the Malaysian higher education arena where she has been actively involved in the industry for the past 28 years. Her latest milestone in her achievements was when she was recently celebrated as the award winner in the Leadership Commitment category at the UN Women’s 2021 Malaysia Women’s Empowerment Principles (WEPs) Awards ceremony. 

This award recognises corporate leaders who have been instrumental in setting strong corporate commitment including progressive policies, regulations or practices that aim to promote gender equality in the workplace, marketplace and community. This includes taking on specific roles and responsibilities to promote gender equality within the company and making public commitments or delivering gender-sensitive messages to the public.

Professor Lee believes that men and women bring different strengths to the workplace and the university is committed to advancing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) especially in encouraging and promoting goals no. 4 – Quality Education, no. 5 – Gender Equality and no. 10 – Reduced Inequalities, through events, campaigns and on a daily basis. 

Professor Lee continuously advocates gender equality among Sunway Education Group’s employees and students and frequently participates in various local and international forums and conferences related to education, gender equality and women empowerment.

She elaborated, “I am proud to say that at the Sunway Education Group, women make up more than 65 percent of the workforce, including top management roles. To ensure both our female and male employees’ welfare and wellbeing, we have various policies in place including Flexible Work Arrangements for Mothers, Anti-Sexual Harassment, as well as Diversity and Inclusion.  

In accepting the award, Professor Lee credits the effort, commitment and dedication of her colleagues together with the firm support from the Board and Sunway Group Chairman, Tan Sri Jeffrey Cheah himself, who greatly advocates education, gender equality, women empowerment and the SDGs.

Baby Steps to Achieving Your Financial Goals

by Calvin Goon,
Head of Wealth Management, Affin Bank Berhad

Achieving financial goals may sound big to a lot of people and often takes a little more effort than just luck. However, is it unachievable at all? 

Just like any of the large task we have, it will sound less difficult if we break them it into smaller sub-tasks. The key here is taking “Baby Steps”. Try to improve your financial wellness by challenging yourself into taking some of these baby steps below:

Again, it might seem difficult to start despite breaking your large financial goals down into “Baby Steps” but you will be astounded by how your financial position will improve once you start to follow through all these steps gradually. 

At Affin Invikta, we can help you start your Baby Steps by offering customized financial solutions tailored to your needs. Want to know more? Reach out to us at www.affininvikta.com and we will assign a dedicated Relationship Manager to guide you through.

Scan here to know more about Affin Invikta

Success is not overnight. It all starts with ‘BABY STEPS’

Treat Your Soft Tissue Injuries with Peace and Love

by Chng Tian Ying,
Head Sports Trainer – RMIT University

When it comes to the management and rehabilitation of soft tissue injuries, there is much complexity involved. What is a soft tissue injury? Soft tissue injuries commonly involve sudden trauma or overuse to muscles, ligaments, or tendons. These injuries often occur during sports and exercise activities but can also be sustained in a situation such as from a misstep when walking, and in many more different scenarios. 

The most common traditional first aid protocols for soft tissue injuries were the mnemonics R.I.C.E. (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation), P.R.I.C.E. (Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) or P.O.L.I.C.E. (Protection, Optimal Loading, Ice, Compression, Elevation). 

These methods highlight the acute management of soft tissue injuries but do not cover the sub-acute and chronic stages of these injuries. In 2019, Blaise Dubois and Jean-Francois Esculier proposed a new protocol: P.E.A.C.E and L.O.V.E. 

The PEACE and LOVE protocol is a new comprehensive guide that covers all stages of injury. It also emphasises the importance of patient education and the biopsychosocial model. 

Current research has shown that an individual’s experience of pain is influenced by the complex interactions between their biological, psychological, and social factors; Thus, it is essential that they receive equal attention to optimise the individual’s recovery process. 

This protocol is split into two parts. PEACE is used as immediate care in the acute stage (1-3 days) after injury, and LOVE as ongoing management in the subsequent phases of injury. 

In the past, movement and exercise after injury have been frowned upon because of the fear of re-injury, but recent research has suggested that introducing easy and gentle movement during the early stages of injury can be beneficial. It can help with blood flow, joint mobilisation, and decreased fear to get back into activity later. It has been suggested that movement is safe as long as it does not exceed a 4/10 pain, does not worsen the existing condition, and is not done excessively. 

You may be wondering why ice has not been suggested in this protocol as one familiar scene that has been seen repeatedly, especially in the sporting community, is the use of ice during the early stages of a soft tissue injury. 

The PEACE and LOVE protocol holds a controversial opinion towards the use of ice. Despite ice being widely used, there is no high-quality evidence to back up the efficacy of it. It has been suggested that although it can help relief pain, it could also potentially disrupt the inflammatory process and delay healing, as inflammation is the body’s natural response to heal and repair damaged tissue. The avoidance of anti-inflammatories is also suggested for a similar reason. 

With the continual advancement of research comes new knowledge; therefore, leading to the constant evolvement of treatment and rehabilitation strategies. This article is a brief introduction to the PEACE and LOVE protocol, and more details can be found online. 

With that being said, if you do experience a soft tissue injury in future, don’t forget to treat them with PEACE and LOVE!

Sports Chiropractic Council Malaysia Aims to Offer Services at Sporting Events

by Dr Hayden Pooke,
Chairman of the Sports Chiropractic Council Malaysia (SCCM)

The formation of Malaysia’s National Chiropractic Sports Council (NCSC), the Sports Chiropractic Council Malaysia (SCCM) was announced by the Association of Chiropractic Malaysia (ACM) at the beginning of 2020 and it was officially recognised by the International Federation of Sports Chiropractic (FICS) in 2021.

According to the SCCM Chairman and Sports Chiropractor, Dr Hayden Pooke, the SCCM’s membership increased from 13 to 47 members in 2021 and he hopes that the trend continues as the Malaysian Sporting Sector begins to open up and travel restrictions are reduced.

Before the Covid 19 national lockdown, the SCCM was involved in their first ever event in the Zurich PGAM Junior Invitational Tournament in 2020, invited by the Professional Golf Association of Malaysia.

Despite ongoing challenges from Covid-19, the SCCM is currently collaborating with Malaysian Sports Associations and plans to provide Sports Chiropractic care for athletes at as many events as possible in 2022.

SCCM is also poised to conduct, with FICS, their first International Certificate in Sports Chiropractic (ICSC) “hands-on” seminar in the third quarter of 2022 in Malaysia. The SCCM is also proud to announce that one of their student members Kong Hong Lian was awarded one of the FICS Student Scholarships for 2022, a first for any Malaysian Chiropractic Student.

Apart from producing world class Sports Chiropractors by completing the FICS highly acclaimed ICSC and giving its members the opportunity to represent FICS Sports Chiropractic delegations at international sports events treating world class athletes, SCCM also pledges to do everything it takes to bring Sports Chiropractic treatment to the local Malaysian sporting scene, servicing and educating athletes at all levels of competition.

Stem Cells Therapy : How Much Do We Know?

by Dr Tan Boon CheongMBBS (MU), MS Ortho (MU)

Image courtesy of Cellaax

I believe some of us have come across stem cells treatment in certain diseases. In orthopaedic, stem cells have been used to treat osteoarthritis, for example knee osteoarthritis, etc. Much has been said and heard about stem cells treatment but I believe the knowledge of the general population on stem cells treatment is still superficial. Thus, it is better for everyone to learn a little more about it.

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the ability and potential to self-renew and proliferate, producing more differentiated or specialised cells in the process. Stem cells can be obtained from several sources; they have several types, namely embryonic stem cells, perinatal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, adult stem cells(Mesenchymal, hematopoietic and epithelial) and immune stem cells.

With the advancement and research development of stem cells technology, stem cells therapy has been able to expand its therapeutic function. Stem cells have been used as a cell source to reconstruct or rebuild living tissue. In the field of immunotherapy, stem cells have been used as an immune modulator for autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, it can also act as progenitor cells for immunotherapy, allowing the development of cellular technology for anti-cancer, anti-virus and enhancement of body immune system. Because of its potential to self-renew and proliferate, stem cells is also used as a therapeutic agent for degenerative diseases related to aging and frailty, and it has been developed into drugs for treatment of chronic and resilient illnesses. With recent advancements, stem cells therapy has been introduced into the treatment of autism and it has shown promising results.

After several decades and continuous research, stem cells therapy will become a game changer for the future in medicine. The capabilities of stem cells are growing everyday although there are still many obstacles to overcome. It is undeniable that stem cells play a huge role in regenerative medicine and transplantology, but because the technology that produces stem cells is expensive, only few could afford it. With the establishment of more regulated stem cells laboratories, I believe stem cells therapy could be more affordable to everyone that requires it.

Is Property Overhang Still A Main Concern to Most House Buyers?

by Kenny Teoh,
Managing Director, Hectarworld Group

The supply overhang remains a concern to most Malaysians in general as according to the National Property Information Centre (“NAPIC”) data in Figure 1 below, a total of 30,358units of completed houses were reported unsold in the third quarter (Q3) of 2021, and by state with reference to Figure 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively, Johor has the highest number of unsold units(21 per cent share) in Malaysia, followed by Penang (15 per cent), Kuala Lumpur (13 per cent) and Selangor (11 per cent).

According to the definition by the NAPIC, overhang is defined as residential units which have received Certificate of Completion and Compliance (CCC) but remained unsold for more than nine months after launch.

A property overhang reflects an area of the market where the supply of available properties is higher than demand. Among the factors that contributed to the property overhang were changing economic conditions, supplies that did not match demands in localities, prices and household income, and unattractive locations of housing projects.

New launches will contribute to the overhang situation if developers do not accurately assess or predict local market conditions, then they may ultimately end up oversupplying the market.

The property market’s performance for the third quarter of 2021 (Q3 2021) is expected to remain stagnant due to the impact from enforcement of Movement Control Order (MCO 3.0),. Pent-up demand is expected by early Q1 2022 after the government lifted the MCO 3.0.

Nevertheless, Malaysia’s property market remains relatively resilient due to the strong financial position of property developers and banks’ continued lending.

This property overhang situation is expected to remain stable amidst efforts by developers to clear unsold completed properties at a reasonable price and measures taken by Malaysian Government like the Home Ownership Campaign (HOC) and low interest rate regime to encourage more home ownership especially for first-time home buyers.

Data by the NAPIC revealed a 1.83 per cent decrease in the number of unsold residential units in the third quarter of 2021 compared with the third quarter of 2020 (a total 30,926 unsold completed houses).

This slight drop in unsold housing properties was attributed to numerous promotional efforts by developers including reducing prices or offering discounts to house buyers.

“This was shown by the reduction in the House Price Index in the third quarter of 2021 (preliminary) recorded at 198.6 index point compared with the third quarter of 2020 at 199.9, which is a 0.7 per cent drop (as shown in the Figure 7 below)

The current low Overnight Policy Rate (OPR) of 1.75 per cent since July 7, 2020, and the HOC which offered duty stamp exemption and a 10 per cent discount on houses priced between RM300,000 and RM2.5 million by developers registered with the Real Estate and Housing Developers’ Association Malaysia (REHDA) till year-end of 2021 have helped shore up residential property sales, easing the overhang in the segment in the third quarter.

Most prospective buyers are owner-occupiers who capitalise on the low interest rate and incentives offered under HOC or by the developers. The young population and first-time house buyers are the main factors that drive the demand for properties.

What is next for the property sector and house buyer like you and I?

It’s a buyer’s market now!

During the pre-pandemic period, the sheer number of newly completed and handover units in the market had shifted the bargaining power in the property market to house buyers.

In the case of an oversupply of property market, a house buyer might even be able to find a great deal with many perks from developers and banks. House buyers can try and negotiate for reduced prices or sweeteners like freebies or discounts are more likely to happen in a buyers’ market.

Malaysian economy is expected to gain momentum after the government lifted the MCO since Q3 2021 and is preparing to enter epidemic phase with possible opening of borders in 2022. Based on recent preliminary claim made by Bank Negara, the overall economy will expand between 5.5% and 6.5% in 2022. Firmer property market from H2 2022 onwards will be expected driven by the economic recovery as income may rise and turn into greater purchasing power. There could also be spill over effects to property market from strong commodity prices and stock market gains.